Fuel - Fuel injector info--have and want (and Ford's shop manual impedance/resistance figures are wrong) | Ford Escort Owners Association (FEOA)
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Fuel Fuel injector info--have and want (and Ford's shop manual impedance/resistance figures are wrong)

Discussion in '1st Gen 1981-1990 CVH' started by John Sawyer, Sep 4, 2015.

  1. John Sawyer

    John Sawyer FEOA Donator

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    I'm looking for specs on the fuel injector used in the throttle body of the first-gen 1.9L CFI/TBI engine, specifically the 1989 Pony if it has any particulars that are different from other first-gen CFI/TBI Escorts, and the injectors used in the 85-87 Tempo CFI/TBI engines (two different injectors, for two different engines), since I've read UnexplodedCow describe in a couple posts here on FEOA that the Tempo's injectors can give a little better performance. I've done a lot of searching online, but I haven't found enough info to make a real comparison. I've got the generic part numbers for the injector used in the Escort (TJ23), and the injectors used in the Tempo (TJ19 and TJ20, depending on the engine), but I haven't found much in the way of specs.

    What prompted this, was that after cleaning oil and dirt off of my Pony's throttle body (including the attached fuel injector, though I first removed the TPS and the ICM) last September by soaking it for about 24 hours in a tub of tap water and Ivory liquid dish soap, last week I finally reinstalled the throttle body and tried to start the engine, but I found that I'm not getting any fuel delivery through the injector--the engine just cranks. I have a strong battery (which I keep topped off), good starter, good spark at all four spark plugs, and good fuel (half a tank). 12 volts power is getting to the injector, and injector pulses from the computer seem normal--I placed a 12V light bulb (from a Pony's cabin light) across the injector's wiring harness's electrical connector, and it glowed steadily (wish my oscilloscope worked instead, so I could see the actual waveform). I didn't do anything to the fuel pressure regulator while cleaning the throttle body that should have messed it up, though I did open it to inspect inside, and then I reinstalled all its parts as I found them. I've tested the fuel pump by disconnecting the fuel line from the outlet of the fuel filter, connecting a hose to the filter's outlet and directing it into a jar, and then activating the pump by shorting the test connector's FP connection to ground, and lots of fuel pumped out quickly. Whenever I turn the key, I hear the fuel pump prime.

    So I suspect that soaking the fuel injector in water may have ruined it. I didn't know much about fuel injectors at the time, so I thought it was a simple enough electromechanical device that getting it wet wouldn't hurt it as long as I let it dry out completely, and I figured almost a full year would be long enough to dry (though that's not why it took me this long to reinstall the throttle body). Now I've done the research on this that I should have done before the soaking, and found that water can indeed destroy an injector, mainly by rusting parts inside it, and quickly.

    The injector measures 1.5 ohms, which at first made me think this was a sure sign that it's bad, because Ford's shop manuals (and Chilton's, which uses Ford's figures) say it should measure 12-16 ohms, which would make it a high impedance injector. But I found that Ford's figures are wrong--other sources, including AllData, say this is a low impedance injector, and that the proper resistance/impedance for it is 1-2 ohms. And, Ford's/Chilton's own photos in their shop manuals show a Fluke digital meter (the same model as mine) being used to measure a first-gen CFI injector, with the display on the Fluke meter showing 1.5 ohms. This made me wonder if Ford's spec of 12-16 ohms was for the injectors used in the first-gen MFI/EFI engines, which they might have accidentally printed in the CFI/TBI sections of their manuals, so I went to a junkyard and measured two of the injectors in a 1990 GT (MFI/EFI HO engine, of course), and they both measured 2.3 ohms. I later found a chart online (http://www.aatecusa.com/obdIIpro/membersonly/technical-tips/gm etc/Injector Resistance Table 2_21_01.PDF) that says the 85-89 Escort CFI injectors are 1-2 ohms, and that 85-89 Escort MFI/EFI injectors are 2.0-2.7 ohms (the chart doesn't include 1990 models, but I'm sure their figures are the same). So where did Ford get the idea that any of the injectors used in the first-gen Escorts were high impedance versions that should measure 12-16 ohms? Did Ford use high impedance injectors in the first few years of the first-gen Escort, and then switch to low impedance starting some time around 1985, and fail to update their shop manuals?

    But even though it seems that my 89 Pony CFI/TBI injector's resistance measures properly at 1.5 ohms, it still seems not to be working, so I decided I want to replace it to be certain. As I mentioned, in a couple threads on FEOA, UnexplodedCow says he replaced his first gen Escort GL's CFI/TBI injector with one from a CFI/TBI Tempo (1985-1987 models), and he thinks it might have delivered a little better performance (though maybe the Tempo's injector was just in better shape than the Escort's that he replaced?). So I did more research, trying to find specs on the CFI/TBI injectors for the Escort and the Tempo. I found that two different engines were used in the 1985-1987 Tempos (a VIN X engine, and a VIN S, which was higher performance), each with a different fuel injector. But as much as I've searched online, I can't find enough specs on all three injectors to make a valid comparison, like flow rate lbs/hr, etc. Most of what I've been able to come up with is further below.

    While doing this research, which included looking at eBay listings since many of them contain alternate part numbers that were useful in searching for info, I came across a listing on eBay for the original injector for my Pony, a white-topped NOS Motorcraft CM-4558/Ford E7FZ-9F593-A, for the lowest price I'd seen for any of these injectors--about $15.50 with free shipping, so I grabbed it immediately. This will postpone my experiment using a Tempo injector, but I'd still like to know the different specs to see which of the Tempo's injectors might deliver some slightly better performance.

    Here's what I've found so far:

    First gen Escort CFI/TBI (at least 85-90 models):
    Color of cap on top: white
    Impedance: low (1-2 ohms)
    Flow: 52 lbs/hr (according to Ford's exploded diagram for the Escort CFI throttle body)
    Part numbers:
    Motorcraft: CM-4558
    Ford: E7EE-9F593-CA, E7FZ-9F593-A, E7FZ-9F593-B, F7CZ-9F593-CA
    Standard: TJ23
    Bosch: 0-280-150-604
    GP Sorensen: 800-1823N
    Tomco: 15007

    1985-1987 Tempo CFI/TBI HP, VIN S engine (High Performance):
    Color of cap on top: green
    Impedance: low (2.0-2.7 ohms)
    Flow: can't find info--it's not in Ford's exploded diagram for the throttle body
    Part numbers:
    Motorcraft: CM-4362
    Ford: E53E-9F593-AB, E53Z-9F593-B, E43E-9F593-AB, E43E-9F593-AC, E53Z-9F593-A, E53Z-9F593-C, F73E-9F593-DA, F73Z-9F593-DA
    Standard: TJ19
    Bosch: 0-280-150-607
    GP Sorensen: 800-1819N
    Tomco: 15008

    1985-1987 Tempo CFI/TBI, VIN X engine:
    (except for VIN X engines with California Emissions, with throttle body E73E-DE, which use the TJ19/green injector)
    Color of cap on top: blue
    Impedance: low (2.0-2.7 ohms)
    Flow: might be 55 lbs/hr, according to one chart compiled by Sam Weiss (http://users.erols.com/srweiss/tableifc.htm#FORD), but I can't find corroborating info.
    Part numbers:
    Motorcraft: CM-4361
    Ford: E43E-9F593-AB, E43E-9F593-AC, E53Z-9F593-A, E53Z-9F593-C, F73A-9F593-CA, F73E-9F593-CA, F73Z-9F593-CA
    Standard: TJ20
    Bosch: 0-280-150-606
    GP Sorensen: 800-1820N
    Last edited: Sep 30, 2015
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  2. focus2000

    focus2000 FEOA Member

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    interesting stuff, the vin s motor is the 2.3l HIGH SPECIFIC OUTPUT tempo sport engine, it supposedly had a higher lift camshaft and you can recognize them as the valve cover says ford performance, there is a 87 tempo 2 door sport 5 speed in the chico pick and pull, someone took the valve cover but the efi was there, I was trying to get a washer fluid resivour ford my lynx but it was cracked. I love tempo/topaz and used to be a member at that forum, I owned the rare 92 mercury topaz LTS at one point with the 3.0 v6 vulcan and 5 speed manual.
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  3. John Sawyer

    John Sawyer FEOA Donator

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    Thanks for the info on the Tempo's VIN S engine. I saw that Tempo listed on the Row52 website the other day, but right now that's over 160 miles from where I'm currently staying, and I don't have access to a running car here either. The Chico PNP also has a 1985 Tempo, so it also looks interesting to me for gathering more info. Next week I'll be home again, only about 65 miles from Chico, and I'll have access to a running car, so maybe if one or both Tempos are still in Chico, I might check them out. If I had access to a car where I'm currently staying, I'd drive only about 30 miles to the Newark PNP, where there's an 87 Tempo. If my Escort were running, it would make it easier to get to these places where I could get some parts to get it running.
  4. Swift

    Swift FEOA Donator

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    Take the injector out, use a 9v battery to activate it and see if you can blow through it.
  5. John Sawyer

    John Sawyer FEOA Donator

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    I'll try that when I get home next week where the car is. But since that test will require steady DC voltage to be applied to the injector longer than it's normally exposed to, can I be certain that this won't harm the injector? Is a 9V battery so much lower in current-delivering capability that it won't harm the injector?

    I'm also going to use my mechanic's stethoscope pressed up against the injector, which I didn't know until a few days ago could be used to listen to the injector as it opens and closes.
  6. ShakeZilla19

    ShakeZilla19 My name is ^^^

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  7. John Sawyer

    John Sawyer FEOA Donator

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    Thanks Shake, but I found that chart last night at Sam Weiss's website (http://users.erols.com/srweiss/tableifc.htm#FORD), and it specifically excludes info on practically every TBI injector that it lists, except to note what engine they were used with. I'm guessing this is because Weiss's orientation is more towards MFI/EFI muscle cars than those with a single fuel injector. It lists the three Ford part numbers I've found for my 1.9L TBI engine's TJ23 injector, with the proper prefixes (E7EE, E7FZ, and F7CZ) that are specific to the Ford 1.9L TBI, but it shows no data for them, except to note that they were specific to Ford's TBI 1.9L engines. The chart also lists several of the Tempo injector's Ford part numbers, but it also lists practically no data for them (except for whether they're high or low impedance), except for the E43E-9F593AC (otherwise known as a TJ20), for which it lists a reasonable-sounding 55.5 lbs/hr. However, the Bosch part number for the TJ23 injector used in my Pony is 0-280-150-604, and this does appear in the chart, but the figures that the chart shows for it are way off for its use in a stock Escort Pony (from which I doubt I'll be getting even 133 HP), and no stock figures can be extrapolated from these numbers:

    Flow @ 43.5 PSI / 3 Bars: 86.77 lbs/hr (912 cc/min) (656 grams/min)
    0.52 BSFC - Est. HP [horsepower]: 80% duty cycle: 133 HP; 95% duty cycle: 158 HP

    The 43.5 PSI cited here for this injector is much higher than the Escort's stock 14.5 PSI as measured at the fuel rail, but the text at the beginning of the chart says "this is a pressure differential across the injector", which might mean that the PSI figure the chart uses, isn't the same as you'd measure on the fuel rail, but I still don't know how to extrapolate from that. But the 86.77 lbs/hr that the chart cites as the output when the injector is subjected to a pressure differential of 43.5 PSI seem higher than I'd want to try to get out of a TJ23 on my Pony, since Ford says the Pony gets only 52 lbs/hr out of it.

    The note at the beginning of the chart also says "Fuel pump flow decreases as the pressure goes higher, so make sure your fuel pump has enough flow at the pressure you raise it to". The stock Pony fuel pump would probably be fine with either of the two Tempo injectors, but this note makes me think that if either Tempo injector requires, or just works best with, a slightly different fuel pressure than the Pony's stock 14.5 PSI, the fuel pressure adjustment screw under the cap on the fuel pressure regulator might need to be accessed for fine tuning. I plan to do that anyway, even with the TJ23 injector I'll be getting next week.

    At this point, lacking definite flow, etc. figures for the two Tempo injectors, but having found data that implies they're not drastically different from the stock Pony TJ23 injector, I'm thinking that the most straightforward way to find out how the Tempo injectors would work in my Pony, would be to just buy one of each and try them, and make some of my own observations and measurements.

    One reason I'm pursuing this, is that there's an interesting section at the end of Weiss's chart, which implies I might get at least a little extra horsepower by using an injector that flows a little more than the stock Pony's 52 lbs/hr. The chart shows HP produced by an injector at a given flow rate, for each category of engine. For my engine, which falls into the category of .52 BSFC (Brake Specific Fuel Consumption) - Modern Stock Engine or Light Modifications Engine, the chart says that an injector putting out 52 lbs/hr produces about 80 HP during normal street driving (which is all I plan to use my Pony for), and an injector putting out 55 lbs/hr creates about 84.6 HP. I know the stock HP for the 89 Pony's engine, using its stock injector, is closer to 90 HP, but the chart still implies I might get almost an extra 5 HP over stock by just installing a slightly higher-flow fuel injector and maybe slightly adjusting the fuel pressure regulator, though I'd want to see what the impact is on fuel mileage before I decide if the result is worth it.
    Last edited: Sep 13, 2015
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  8. Swift

    Swift FEOA Donator

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    You can take battery on and off to sort of pulse. Check out youtube for cleaning injectors.
    it just seems you need to rule out injectors or fuel pump from the way it sounds

    Edit, it sounds like you already checked pump now that I reread.
    Last edited: Sep 5, 2015
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  9. John Sawyer

    John Sawyer FEOA Donator

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    I'm back home, so now I've had a chance to try that test. The old injector made no clicking sounds when I pulsed it with the 9V battery. I've also received the new Motorcraft CM4558/Ford E7FZ-9F593-A injector, but I don't want to try the 9V battery test on it, in case that might fry it if I let the battery touch it too long (I'm worried that applying 9V to the new injector as briefly as I can might still cause it some harm, since I can't really achieve millisecond-long pulses manually).

    I also measured the resistance of the new injector, and it's 1.5 ohms, same as the non-working injector, so it looks like the old injector has seized instead of shorted (I'm guessing that if the non-working injector just needed cleaning, it would at least click when battery power was applied). This resistance measurement is also the final confirmation that Ford's shop manual numbers of 12-16 ohms for the first-gen Escort injectors (both CFI and EFI/MFI) are wrong.

    I'm working on doing some more comparing and documenting of these two injectors before I install the new one and try it, so I'll post that info once I'm done.
  10. Swift

    Swift FEOA Donator

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    I cant blame you, dont take a chance, if you feel at all unsure.

    these are throttle body injectors which are different than other injectors. I believe only in shape,
    Dothey come apart at all?
  11. John Sawyer

    John Sawyer FEOA Donator

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    I don't know yet if these throttle body injectors come apart, since I want to try the new injector in the car before trying to take apart the old one, in case fuel doesn't come out of the new injector either, which would imply that the old injector might actually still be OK. But if fuel comes out of the new injector, I'll definitely be taking apart the old one, at least as much as is possible, to see how it's made.
  12. John Sawyer

    John Sawyer FEOA Donator

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    Well, the new fuel injector works fine. I started up the engine a few times with it installed, and checked the nozzle spray pattern, and it looked fine to me--a nice cone. I ran the engine for only about fifteen seconds to a minute each time, since the engine hasn't been started in over a year and I wanted to make sure everything was OK before running it longer than that. Good thing I did--when I looked inside the valve cover, I saw a bunch of chocolate milk, more than could be accounted for by a year's worth of water condensation in the oil pan. I'd just changed the oil anyway, just prior to startup. So this confirms one of my suspicions--that the overheating I saw last year, probably caused the head gasket to blow and/or warp the head.

    So, now I'm looking for a NOS Ford-made 1.6L head gasket (E8FZ-6051-B, or E8AJ-6051-AA), since according to UnexplodedCow and others here on FEOA, the cylinder bore diameter of the 1.6L gasket (83mm, for the 1.6L's bore of 80mm) matches the bore of the 1.9L engine (82mm or 83mm) better than the bore in the current head gaskets (about 86.9mm) being made for the 1.9L, since the current gaskets are designed to also be usable on Ford's 2.0L engine (third gen Escort), whose cylinder bore diameter (84.8mm) is even bigger than the 1.9L. I also got another, identical head (RFE8EE-A7A) from a local junkyard (except that it unexpectedly contains a flat tappet cam and tappets/lifters, which I won't be using) in case the head that's currently installed is warped too badly to mill, or cracked. The junkyard head looks pretty good--my feeler gauge flatness measurements show it to be flat, and no cracks, etc.

    At least now I've got a working fuel injector, and I'll see if the old one can be taken apart.
    Last edited: Oct 15, 2015

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